Chicago Office Urbana Office 910 W. Van Buren Street, Suite 500 909 W. Oregon Street, Suite 300 Chicago, Illinois 60607 Urbana, Illinois 61801 (312-996-5300) (217-333-4273)
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Survey Methodology Research on Cognition Other Methodological Research Health Research Educational Concerns Other Studies SUPPORT FOR FACULTY RESEARCH AND TEACHING Research Faculty Project Development Advising SRL Staff Contribution to University Courses ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE THE UNIVERSITY APPENDIX A: AFFILIATIONS OF SPONSORS OF NEW AND CONTINUING STUDIES, 19921993 APPENDIX B: STAFF ACTIVITIES, 19921993
The past year, 199293, is best described as a year of change. As the year began, we were undergoing three major changes in Chicago. First, our space was being renovated. Second, we were in the process of installing a local area network (LAN) and a new computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CASES-Berkeley). Thus, while walls were being removed and rebuilt and wires and new telephones were being installed, all of us were trying to keep track of files, papers, proposals, and studies in the midst of moving. Everywhere there were dust and workers. Then it ended. The systems, computers, and offices were in place. The remainder of the year was spent developing procedures and testing both the network and CASES system.
As the year began, we thought that we would undertake several large studies before the year ended. Fortunately and unfortunately, the studies did not arrive until the beginning of the current fiscal year: Fortunately, we had time to at least develop some rudimentary systems; unfortunately, we ended the year with a small deficit. The deficit occurred because more computer equipment was needed than was originally planned for, and due to the study schedule delays, we needed to equip an additional 12 interviewer stations. The delayed projects meant that none of the costs associated with the renovation could be recovered from project indirect cost revenues, as originally planned.
When the project work finally came, everyone on staff was pushed to the limit. We had to conduct the projects in an abbreviated period with new staff members who learned quickly but still required training. I am very pleased with and proud of the level of effort expended over this past year, as it was very beneficial. We project that we will finish the current year with a positive balance, even after repaying the loss incurred in 199293. Presently, we have a strong base of projects, and new projects arrive almost weekly. We also have several projects that will be conducted over several years, ensuring a base for at least two years into the future.
While we were preoccupied with new systems and space renovation, we also moved ahead scientifically. Under the leadership of Seymour Sudman and Timothy Johnson, we have moved into the newest fields of survey questionnaire design. Grants and contracts supported three research projects that focus on the cognitive aspects of questionnaire design. Sudman had a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and contracts from the Bureau of the Census and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to study these processes. Diane O'Rourke, Johnson, and I, along with colleagues from the University of Maryland, New York University, the University of Pennsylvania, the National Opinion Research Center (NORC), and NCHS, worked with Sudman on his various projects. Johnson and O'Rourke received a grant from NCHS that supported research on how minority respondents and those with low education answer some often used health questions. Sudman and I and colleagues from the School of Public Health, Loretta Lacey and Noel Chavez, have collaborated with Johnson and O'Rourke on this grant. In addition, we have incorporated the techniques developed in this study into several other proposals and have been quite successful with them. These techniques are becoming the standard for questionnaire design and are being incorporated into new texts on questionnaire design, including one that Sudman is coauthoring.
As the report shows, health has remained our primary topic of research and, given the newly funded projects, may be the major subject area of the future. Through the efforts of Johnson and some of our new staff members, we have moved into the health-related areas of drug abuse, homelessness, and other research topics. These new areas of activity are supported with funding from the Illinois Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA). In the coming year, Johnson expects to build on the base that these new projects have provided. He will submit a grant proposal to study better ways of eliciting information on these topics using the cognitive methodology that he has participated in developing.
My research on the effects of televised smoking cessation programs on helping people quit smoking received continued funding for an additional four years. This project provided the first test of our new CASES system. Fortunately, we were prepared, and early interviewing went well. This is one of several multiyear projects awarded in this year. This line of research will continue as we undertake additional studies of smoking cessation and participation in breast and cervical cancer screening. Many of these studies will be collaborative with the American Medical Center Program Research Center in Denver and with the Prevention Research Center (PRC), a unit of UIC's School of Public Health. A related study will be done in collaboration with the College of Nursing at UIC, assessing ways to measure how cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy assess the effects of chemotherapy on the quality of their lives. All these projects will employ cognitive methods to assess how individuals from various racial/ethnic backgrounds and educational levels respond.
Thus, as we move into fiscal year 199394, we are again in solid financial standing, as 199293 proved to be a very successful year for attracting new projects to the Laboratory. During this year, we will consolidate what we have learned about our computer interviewing and network systems and reexamine some procedures in light of what has been learned. We will also prepare for further changes that will be taking effect as 199394 comes to a close. The primary change is the imminent retirement of Sharon Calkins, who has been my associate director for the past 10 years. Calkins was the second person whom I hired when I joined SRL in 1974, 20 years ago. I will say more about her in next year's report. However, as we begin this fiscal year, her pending departure implies further changes at least as significant as those we experienced in the past year.
In addition to service projects conducted for University of Illinois staff, faculty, and students, SRL conducted 29 new and continuing studies during the past year,
ranging from large, multiyear projects to consultation. These projects are described in the sections below, grouped by topic area.
SRL continued its special research focus on survey methodology in 199293 under Sudman's leadership. The primary focus has been on cognitive approaches to
questionnaire design. SRL currently has several grants and contracts that support research and applications of research in this area. The principal activities include the Joint
Statistical Agreement with the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a contract with and a grant from NCHS. New funding beginning in fiscal year 199394 will apply the same methods
to understanding how minority respondents interpret and respond to questions about quality of life. Besides the methodological work supported by these major sources of funding,
methodological studies conducted by SRL staff as part of current projects have been major and ongoing activities. As Appendix B indicates, several staff members have either
written papers or made presentations at appropriate meetings of survey researchers.
Research on Cognition
Sudman's study of cognitive approaches to questionnaire design continued under the Joint Statistical Agreement with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Sudman served with Johnny Blair (University of Maryland) as a discussant for a session of the Census Bureau Annual Research Conference in March in connection with the Agreement and coauthored a paper given there.
Activity continued on our contract with NCHS supporting research on the Cognitive Aspects of Reporting Cancer Prevention Examinations and Tests in the form of data analysis and report writing. Sudman is the principal investigator and Richard Warnecke and Johnson are co-investigators for this study. O'Rourke has been project coordinator and has been acting as a co-investigator. Under this contract, an experimental design was employed to investigate cognitive-based strategies in questionnaire design to improve the accuracy of reporting about four early cancer detection procedures: the Pap smear, clinical breast examinations, mammography, and fecal occult blood tests. The results indicate that respondents who are members of an HMO are very likely to report such tests based on their recall of a general physical examination and that no alternate form of wording will deter them from that recall strategy. SRL staff members presented several papers on the study. Johnson, O'Rourke, Sudman, and Warnecke presented papers with Jared Jobe (NCHS) at the American Public Health Association conference in November 1992 and at the annual conference of the American Association for Public Opinion Research in May 1993.
Sudman also served as discussant on a panel on the Effect of Regularity of Reporting on Medical Tests at the American Association for Public Opinion Research in May.
A new methodological study investigating how minority populations and less educated respondents respond to health questions began this year with a grant from
NCHS to Johnson. O'Rourke is coprincipal investigator, and Warnecke, Sudman, Lacey, and Chavez are co-investigators. The study seeks to clarify comparability aspects of
health questions by using cognitive methods to assess how racial/ethnic background affects the interpretation of commonly administered health survey questions, the information
retrieval and judgment formation utilized in formulating responses to those questions, and the editing of the responses prior to verbalization. Subjects will come from four
racial/ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and white), two age groups (18 through 29 and 30 through 50), and two education groups (those with
a high school education or less and those with more than a high school education). The study is scheduled for completion in September 1994.
Other Methodological Research
Staff members published and presented methodological papers using data from several other health-related studies. Jennifer Parsons, Johnson, Warnecke, and Arnold
Kaluzny (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) published a paper on interviewer effects in the National Physician Survey in Evaluation Review based on work done as
part of the evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Community Clinical Oncology Program, done under contract with the University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill. Kaluzny was principal investigator on the contract with NCI, and Warnecke was coprincipal investigator. Parsons and Ward Kay presented a paper on surveying elites
that came out of this study at the American Association for Public Opinion Research in May. At the November meeting of the Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research,
Johnson and Parsons presented an interviewer effects paper based on the study of the homeless SRL had done for DASA in 1990. Johnson and Ananda Mitra published a sampling
paper with Ramona Newman (formerly of SRL) and John Horm (NCHS) in Evaluation Practice based on work done for that study.
Health research projects comprised over half of SRL's studies, once again making health the major area of substantive research (see Table 1). There were 5 new and 10 continuing health-related studies during 199293. Much of the health research was done collaboratively with PRC. Major areas of research activity included smoking cessation, school studies on health education about substance abuse and AIDS prevention, and studies evaluating approaches to the early detection of cancer. Most of the methodological studies were also health studies.
Subject Client's Department or Affiliation
Minority Populations' Understanding of Health Questions Survey Research Laboratory Meta-Analysis of Social Support Inter- Prevention Research Center (UIC) ventions for Addictive Behaviors Illinois Comprehensive Substance Abuse Study Illinois Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Network Study of the Chronically Disabled Brown University Prescribe for Health Patient Telephone Interview Prevention Research Center (UIC)
Cook County Hospital Smoking Cessation Study Cook County Hospital Minority Youth AIDS Prevention Program Prevention Research Center (UIC) Prescribe for Health in Urban Minority School of Public Health, Prevention Primary Care Physician Practices Research Center (UIC) Illinois School and Community Prevention Prevention Research Center (UIC) Education Program Cognitive Aspects of Reporting Cancer National Center for Health Statistics Prevention Examinations and Tests Service Employees International Union Service Employees International Union Nurses Survey Medical Records Department Survey/1992 American Health Information Management Manpower Survey Association National Physician Survey, Wave 2 (part of Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services the assessment of the Community Research (University of North Carolina Clinical Oncology ProgramII) at Chapel Hill) Youth AIDS Prevention Program Prevention Research Center (UIC) Community Intervention for Cancer Prevention Survey Research Laboratory, Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health, Psychology (UIC), and Sociology
The largest new research project was the renewed funding for an ongoing program project focused on smoking cessation. The proposal was submitted to NCI in June 1992. The project was funded, and work began in March 1993. The program project contains three research studies and three supporting cores. The overall project, ongoing since 1985, continues research into patterns of quitting smoking. The new research focuses on women with a high school education or less. One of the program's research projects, of which Warnecke is the principal investigator and Brian Flay, director of PRC, is the coprincipal investigator, continues the line of research that has been assessing how televised messages can be combined with written materials to promote successful cessation. In this latest version, two kinds of televised messages are combined. One form uses paid actors and purchased air time to promote smoking cessation as a positive action, which, if successfully achieved, will help women gain confidence in other areas of their lives. These messages are then supplemented with televised promotions and an 11-day series of segments incorporated into the evening news format that attempt to make quitting smoking an achievable goal for women with a high school education or less. A booklet containing guidance for women who wish to quit is being developed with support from the Illinois Division of the American Cancer Society (ACS). The news segments are designed to be offered in conjunction with the ACS's Great American Smoke-Out. Dee Burton, an associate director at PRC, is principal investigator for the Communication Core. With George Balch (PRC) and investigators from the individual research projects, Burton will prepare the written materials and work with a public relations firm and WMAQ-TV to develop, produce, and implement the televised portions of this project.
The second project of the program studies ways to help women who quit smoking maintain abstinence. This component is to be carried out with women who have been part of another study conducted by PRC. The part connected with the program project will focus on maintaining cessation among women with a high school education or less. It will be conducted primarily at PRC. Robin Mermelstein, an associate director of PRC, is the principal investigator of this project. Johnson, in his role as co-investigator, will lead an examination of how social networks provide support for those trying to quit.
The third research study will focus on how to institute low cost, minimal contact interventions in the public health clinics. Clara Manfredi, an associate director of PRC, is the principal investigator. Lacey, also an associate director of PRC, and Kathleen Crittenden, a professor of sociology at UIC, are the coprincipal investigators. This is a quasi experiment in which 14 pairs of clinics are to be randomized into an intervention or a control status. Materials and videotaped messages developed by the Communication Core will be combined with a message delivered by the health care provider whom the woman sees at the clinic, a follow-up letter, and a supportive interview.
In all projects, subjects are to be followed for 12 months following the intervention. SRL provides for this data collection support in its role as the Survey and Evaluation Core for the entire project. Evaluation of the intervention will require extensive interviewing in years one and two of this four-year project. As principal investigator, Warnecke is also the principal investigator of the Headquarters Core, which is also housed at SRL. This project involves 14 faculty members; the Illinois Division of ACS; the Chicago Department of Public Health; and WMAQ-TV, the NBC-owned television station in Chicago.
During the past year, Warnecke, as principal investigator, has collaborated with other investigators on two papers in connection with the earlier segment of this study. One was published in the MarchApril issue of Addictive Behaviors (with Stephanie McFall, Art Michener, Dana Rubin, Flay, Mermelstein, Burton, and Patricia Jelen) and one in the MayJune issue of Public Health Reports (with Lacey, Manfredi, Balch, Karen Allen, and Constance Edwards).
SRL also evaluated a smoking study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and conducted by the Illinois Department of Public Health. Parsons and Warnecke worked with Manfredi, Lacey, and Crittenden on this two-year project, which continued through September 1993. Funds for this project enabled pretesting of instruments that are being used in the smoking program project.
SRL also completed a smoking cessation study in January for Dr. David Marder of Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The study examined the success of a Cook County clinic in helping patients quit smoking.
In November 1992, SRL completed its technology diffusion study for NCI, which was conducted under subcontract from the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The study evaluated the implementation and impact of the Community Clinical Oncology ProgramPhase II, a major effort by NCI to diffuse state-of-the-art cancer treatment and to develop a cancer control research consortium of community hospitals. Warnecke and Kaluzny (of the Sheps Center) were the coprincipal investigators for the five-year project. Staff at all 52 participating hospitals and 17 major research centers were surveyed, 20 hospitals and 10 of the major research centers were visited, 9,600 patient records were audited to monitor changes in patient care, and two surveys of community physicians were conducted. Johnson headed the medical abstracting phase of this project. As mentioned in the Survey Methodology section, Parsons, Johnson, Warnecke, and Kaluzny published a paper in Evaluation Review on gatekeeping effects on response to the National Physician Survey conducted as part of this project, and Parsons and Kay presented a paper at the American Association for Public Opinion Research conference in May on the use of fax machines for data retrieval in the National Physician Survey.
During this past year, SRL also continued work on Prescribe for Health, an NCI-funded study. Lacey is the principal investigator, Manfredi and Ronald Czaja (formerly of SRL and now of North Carolina State University) are coprincipal investigators, and Warnecke is a co-investigator. This study seeks to implement and evaluate early cancer detection protocols among primary care physicians who have mostly low- to moderate-income African American and Hispanic patients through the quality control mechanisms of a Medicaid HMO. Data collection for the initial phase was completed, and data reduction began before the study was put on hold in August. The study will begin again in June 1994. Other cancer-related studies that began or were active this past year include Sudman's study of the cognitive aspects of reporting cancer screening procedures with Warnecke, Johnson, and O'Rourke, discussed in the Survey Methodology section.
Three health-related studies involved school populations and were conducted with PRC staff and Susan Levy (PRC's associate director for school interventions) and Flay. The Youth AIDS Prevention Program carried over from the previous year. During the second year of data collection, a survey of students and their parents in suburban schools in the Chicago area took place. Students were asked to complete an in-class, self-administered questionnaire on AIDS, sex, and drug use. Parent questionnaires were sent home with students to be returned by mail. However, a very low return required a telephone follow-up to obtain unreturned parent questionnaires. The project is federally funded through a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.
The second school-based project was the Illinois School and Community Prevention Education Program, also directed by Susan Levy and funded as part of the PRC grant from CDC. It was completed in June 1993. The purpose of this study was to assess attributes of organizations and school staff members associated with varying levels and types of implementations of drug prevention education programs in Illinois public schools, to develop and test an intervention to improve drug education program implementation, and to determine gaps in current curriculums.
The third youth health study that continued in 1993, the Minority Youth AIDS Prevention Program, seeks to test the efficacy of a classroom-based intervention program designed to prevent health-compromising behaviors such as violence, unsafe sexual behavior, and substance use/abuse among 10- to 13-year-old African American adolescents in poor neighborhoods of Chicago and its suburbs. Flay is the principal investigator. A pilot study was conducted with students during the summer. SRL will administer the parent questionnaire (by telephone with face-to-face follow-up) beginning in the spring of 1994. The study is scheduled for completion in June 1997. It is being funded by the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development.
Two new studies dealt with substance abuse issues. Parsons conducted a meta-analysis of social support interventions for addictive behaviors with funds from the CDC grant awarded to PRC. This was a competitive application. Results from studies on the effect of support from the subject's environment in maintaining behavior change have been equivocal. Parsons used the statistical methods of meta-analysis to review controlled social support interventions for the treatment of alcoholism, smoking, and obesity in an attempt to reconcile the differences in results and to determine the features of interventions that are most predictive of success. The study was completed in June, with the results to be presented in the coming fiscal year. Johnson is the principal investigator for the second new substance abuse study, which is being funded by DASA via a federal grant from the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. The study's purpose is to produce precise incidence and prevalence estimates of nonmedical alcohol and drug abuse for the Illinois adult population as a whole and for subgroupings by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and DASA administrative region in order to develop more effective prevention and treatment programs in Illinois and to apply state dollars in an optimal manner. The sample is concentrated in Cook County, with other respondents outside the county.
Several papers came out of a DASA study SRL conducted in 1990. As mentioned in the Survey Methodology section, Johnson and Mitra published a paper with Newman and Horm in Evaluation Practice in June 1993, and Johnson and Parsons made a presentation at the Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research in November 1992. Johnson presented two papers at the American Public Health Association in November 1992, one with Parsons and one with Mark Barrett of the National University of Singapore, and one with Parsons at the American Association for Public Opinion Research in May 1993.
Johnson and O'Rourke's study on minority responses to health questions is described in the Survey Methodology section. The principal investigator for a new study of the chronically disabled in Springfield, Massachusetts, is Vincent Mor of Brown University. Funding is from a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Sudman has collaborated with this group on the design of the sampling techniques being used to locate this very rare population. The sample consists of both frail elderly and working age disabled people. The study incorporates the use of multiplicity sampling using a network sample of the frail elderly. Data collection will be completed in February 1994.
The New Parenthood Project for Michele Kelley (PRC and School of Public Health) also began this year. It focuses on how new mothers and fathers are coping with the demands of parenthood. The purpose of the project is to examine distress related to pregnancy and birth. A secondary research objective is to examine changes in gender roles in couples before and after their first child. The mother and father will be interviewed separately at three months prior to the baby's birth and three months after the baby is born. Questions cover health, ideas about childbirth, stresses of becoming a new parent, how the household work is done, marriage, employment, and use of alcohol and cigarettes. Upon completion of the second interview, the parents will be mailed an infant temperament questionnaire that asks about the baby's development. The study is being funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau.
SRL was involved with two health-related mail surveys in 199293. The Data Reduction Section conducted the American Health Information Management
Association 1992 Manpower Survey for Margaret Amatayakul (Medical Records Services) to collect information to assist in defining staffing needs in health information
management. Completed in September 1992, the survey was one of a series that occur approximately every three years. In addition, O'Rourke advised the Service Employees
International Union on a mail survey they sent to the approximately 50,000 nurses who are members.
SRL worked on eight new and continuing studies concerned with education. Two were sponsored by UIC. The first of these was conducted for the UIC Faculty Advisory Committee and assessed faculty satisfaction and concerns with teaching and working conditions and with their understanding of the grievance process at UIC. It was completed in the spring. The second study was conducted for Timothy Shanahan, director of the Center for Literacy. Its purpose was to gather information concerning the interest of UIC students in community service to assist UIC in developing appropriate opportunities for student community service. Questionnaire design, sampling, mail data collection, sample control, data reduction, and data processing took place during the year.
A number of educational studies were conducted for UIUC faculty as well. A continuing project, funded by the United States Agency for International Development, was completed in January 1993 for Tom McCowen of the Office of International Agriculture on the impact of an agricultural sabbatic program. SRL assisted McCowen in the development of a questionnaire for administration to U.S. scholars having taken sabbatical leave between 1987 and 1992 at Egerton University in Kenya. SRL also completed data entry and SPSS setup for Diane Gottheil of UIUC's Medical Scholars Program, and a new survey on University of Illinois sports was started for Ronald Guenther, director of the Division of Intercollegiate Athletics. That study will assess interests and involvement of students as participants and spectators of intervarsity, club, and intramural sports.
The Maine Township High School study for Fred Coombs (UIUC College of Education) was completed in September 1992 with funds from Maine Township High School District 207. The study's purpose was to assess the level of parental and citizen satisfaction with educational programs offered by the public high schools, sources of information about high school programs, public perceptions of teachers and school administrators, willingness to accept property tax increases in order to maintain school programs, and opinions about the most important problems now facing the high schools. Survey results will be used to aid future policy and program decisions to be made by the Maine Township Board of Education.
A new study for the Center for Advanced Education and Research (CAER) was completed in November 1992. The study for CAER and Robert Bender (University of Illinois associate vice president for academic affairs) sought to identify specific topics of interest for future CAER seminars by surveying businesses in the technology corridor of northeastern Illinois. Mitra and Vincent Parker presented a paper at the American Association for Public Opinion Research in May 1993 based on a past study (completed in 1991) on educational needs in the technology corridor.
Projects for nonUniversity of Illinois clients included a continuing study on low-income minority children for Arthur Reynolds (Department of Psychology, Yale),
funded by the Chicago Public Schools Bureau of Program Evaluation. It was completed in September 1992 and assessed the prevalence of past and present factors in everyday
life affecting the school success of children from low-SES households. Survey results will help the public schools to better serve children and families for whom a low-income
environment poses a risk to school success.
Collaborative Research for Joe Spaeth, Arne Kalleberg (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill), David Knoke (University of Minnesota), and Peter Marsden (Harvard University) on the National Organizations Study was completed in March. The NSF-funded project investigated issues related to work organizations and their employees by collecting data on work organizations and organization-individual linkages. In connection with the project, O'Rourke was a panel discussant at the Workshop on the National Organizations Study held in Minneapolis in May.
Another continuing project, completed in February 1993, was the Illinois Recreational Facilities Inventory for Gerrit Knaap (UIUC Department of Urban and Regional Planning). The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the supply of outdoor recreation resources and facilities in Illinois to guide recommendations for allocations of federal and state funds to local jurisdictions for construction and operation of recreation facilities as well as acquisition of land. Questionnaires were mailed to managers of public and private outdoor recreation sites and facilities throughout Illinois. Edward Lakner and Mitra presented a paper on this study with Knaap at the American Association for Public Opinion Research in May.
SRL continued the Technology Transfer to Aid Pollution Prevention and Waste Management study for Jacqueline Peden of the Hazardous Waste Research and
Information Center. Sampling took place before activity on the state-funded project was suspended in February 1993. It will be reactivated at a later date. In addition, SRL
conducted six service projects on the Urbana campus and two on the Chicago campus, as listed in Table 2.
Seven research faculty members held appointments at SRL in 199293. Warnecke's academic appointments are in the Departments of Sociology and Epidemiology
in Chicago and Sociology in Urbana. Sudman's appointments are in the Departments of Business Administration and Sociology in Urbana. Joe Spaeth, who held a zero-time
appointment with SRL, retired in June. His academic appointment was in the Department of Sociology in Urbana. Paul Levy (Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UIC), Gerald
Strom (Political Science, UIC), Barry Chiswick (Economics, UIC), and Roland Liebert (Sociology, UIUC) also held zero-time appointments.
SRL supports faculty research by accommodating faculty members who wish to use the Laboratory's resources for their research. The Laboratory offers assistance in designing studies and questionnaires, sampling, consultation on data reduction and analysis, and preparation of grant proposals. These services were funded during the past year with part of the state funds allocated to SRL. SRL usually maintains involvement in projects after they are funded.
Academic professional staff worked on 39 new proposed projects in 199293. Table 2 shows the largest source of clients for newly proposed projects: University
of Illinois faculty, staff, and students, with 15 new proposals on the Urbana campus and 18 on the Chicago campus. The University was a major source of funded projects as
well, with 10 of the 33 proposed University projects receiving funding. The largest single source of funding was NCI, which funded the smoking cessation study program project,
which involves 14 UIC faculty members from PRC, Sociology, Psychology, and the School of Public Health.
Faculty Department Faculty Department member or unit member or unit
New projects Kelly Psychology Ruprecht Operations and Maintenance Manfredi Prevention Research Center Whitener Conferences and Institutes Estabrook Library Research Center Buckley Human Development and Family Studies Gottheil Medical Scholars Lowry Research Services Office Guenther Division of Intercollegiate Athletics Perry- Human Development and Jenkins Family Studies
Continuing projects Lacey School of Public Health Spaeth Sociology Levy and Prevention Research Center Hazardous Waste Research McFall and Information Center Amatayakul Medical Records Services Knaap Urban and Regional Planning McCowan Agriculture Coombs Education
Pending projects Johnstone Sociology Mirowsky Sociology and Orum Kaplan School of Social Work Flyer UI Hospital Kluegel Sociology Campbell Sociology Rosenblatt Community Health Public Affairs Office Ross Sociology Flay Prevention Research Center Estabrook Library Research Center Conrad School of Public Health Chakravorty Community Health Miller Engineering Dole Plant Biology Shanahan Education Campus Auxiliary Services Kelley School of Public Health Ferrans Nursing Walsh Sociology Manfredi Prevention Research Center Cogdill Library of Health Sciences Richman Psychiatry Handler Prevention Research Center
SRL assisted with proposals on a broad range of topics in 199293. Among those proposed by University staff, faculty, and students were a study on community, crime, and health for Catherine Ross (Sociology, UIUC) and John Mirowsky (Sociology, UIUC); two library studies for Leigh Estabrook (Library and Information Science, UIUC); a study of firefighter and paramedic work-related injuries for Karen Conrad (UIC College of Nursing); a quality of life study for Carol Ferrans (UIC College of Nursing) and Warnecke; a consumer health information study for Keith Cogdill, the resident librarian at UIC's Library of the Health Sciences; an epidemiological study of harassment, gender, and drinking for Judith Richman (Psychiatry, UIC); a prenatal care study for PRC; and SRL's resubmission of a proposal for a study on institutionalization of smoking cessation programs. Other topics included an interviewer and respondent behavior coding project to be funded by NCHS and a rural hospital discharge study for Mary Fennell of Pennsylvania State University.
In addition to proposal development, SRL is the lead organization for planning the sixth Health Survey Methods Conference. The planning committee, chaired
by Warnecke, includes representatives from the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in Houston, Research
Triangle Institute, NORC, and the University of MassachusettsBoston. Also included are representatives from the Agency for Health Care Policy Research (AHCPR) and NCHS.
The conference proposal is currently under review by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, AHCPR, NCHS, and other National Institutes of Health centers. Assuming funding
is forthcoming, the conference will be held in the fall of 1994.
SRL continued its policy of giving free advice to University faculty, staff, and students in 199293. Staff members spent 385.8 hours on these services, with 119
hours provided to the Chicago campus community and 266.8 to Urbana's campus. These figures do not include time spent on the project development activities described above.
SRL staff members lectured for fewer University classes this past year than in 199192. Johnson gave guest lectures at graduate kinesiology research methods courses for Warren Palmer and to Baila Miller's social work course last October, and Warnecke gave a talk on cancer control to a graduate course in epidemiology for Faith Davis.
In addition to obtaining grants and contracts and serving in their University research and educational roles, SRL staff members have always maintained links with
the outside research community. SRL staff members participated actively in the research community in the past year by publishing articles and books, participating in conferences,
holding positions in professional organizations, and acting as editors and consultants. Activities for 199293 are listed in Appendix B. Also, the publication of Survey Research
newsletter continues to provide a link to the national and international research communities. Three issues of Survey Research were published this past year, the same number
as in the previous few years. With the spring 1993 issue, the editorship of the newsletter passed from Mary Spaeth to O'Rourke, who became the managing editor, and Marya
Ryan, who became the production editor. O'Rourke plans to increase the number of articles in each issue and to open a forum for discussion of methodological issues in the
newsletter. Since publication costs are covered through voluntary contributions at various levels of support, O'Rourke and Ryan are renewing efforts to gain more paying
subscribers. The mailing list, which includes University of Illinois faculty members and researchers, research institutions, governmental agencies, and other interested people
worldwide, has been cut slightly (from about 2,300 to about 2,100) in an effort to control costs and focus on communication with actively interested researchers.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Illinois at Chicago
Other Academic Institutions
Publications of SRL Staff
Grant, Susan J. (with Dave R. Seibold, Christine M. Bauch, Kim T. Nguyen, Mima Saeki, Kristen L. Schnarr, & Katherine A. Solowczuk). Communication/information
technologies and university education: A survey of alumni about workplace technologies. Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, 81 (1992),
Johnson, Timothy P. (with Ananda Mitra, Ramona Newman, & John Horm). Problems of definition in sampling special populations: The case of homeless persons. Evaluation
Practice, 14(2) (1993), 119126.
------ (with Robert W. Moore). Gender interactions between interviewer and survey respondents: Issues of pornography and community standards. Sex Roles, 28 (1993), 119.
------ (with Jennifer A. Parsons, Richard B. Warnecke, & Arnold D. Kaluzny). The effect of interviewer characteristics on gatekeeper resistance in surveys of elite populations.
Evaluation Review, 17 (1993), 131143.
Mitra, Ananda (with Timothy P. Johnson, Ramona Newman, & John Horm). Problems of definition in sampling special populations: The case of homeless persons. Evaluation
Practice, 14(2) (1993), 119126.
Parsons, Jennifer (with Timothy P. Johnson, Richard B. Warnecke, & Arnold D. Kaluzny). The effect of interviewer characteristics on gatekeeper resistance in surveys of elite
populations. Evaluation Review, 17 (1993), 131143.
Warnecke, Richard B. (with Loretta P. Lacey, Clara Manfredi, George Balch, Karen Allen, & Constance Edwards). Social support in smoking cessation among black women
in Chicago public housing. Public Health Reports, 108 (1993), 387394.
------ (with Stephanie L. McFall, Art Michener, Dana Rubin, Brian R. Flay, Robin J. Mermelstein, Dee Burton, & Patricia Jelen). The effects and use of maintenance newsletters
in a smoking cessation intervention. Addictive Behaviors, 18 (1993), 151158.
------ (with Jennifer A. Parsons, Timothy P. Johnson, & Arnold D. Kaluzny). The effect of interviewer characteristics on gatekeeper resistance in surveys of elite populations.
Evaluation Review, 17 (1993), 131143.
O'Rourke, Diane. CoSite Chair, Field Directors and Field Technologies Conference, Chicago, May 1993.
Conference Participation and Other Professional Appearances
Grant, Susan J. Dynamic modelling of the social influence process: A networks approach. Organizational Communication Mini-Conference, Urbana, IL, October 1992.
Johnson, Timothy P. (with Jeannie R. Aschkenasy & Mary R. Herbers). Suicidal thoughts and attempts among homeless youth. Ambulatory Pediatric Association, Washington,
DC, May 1993.
------ (with Jeannie R. Aschkenasy, Mary R. Herbers, & Stephen A. Gillenwater). Self-reported risk factors for AIDS among homeless youth. American Pediatric Society,
Washington, DC, May 1993.
------ (with Mark E. Barrett). Substance use among the homeless in Cook County, Illinois. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with Jared B. Jobe, Diane O'Rourke, Seymour Sudman, & Richard Warnecke). Cognitive aspects of reporting cancer prevention examinations and tests. American Public
Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with Diane O'Rourke, Seymour Sudman, Richard B. Warnecke, & Jared Jobe). The effect of regularity on the accuracy of reporting of medical tests. American Association
for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
------ (with Jennifer A. Parsons). Interviewer effects on self-reported substance use among homeless persons. Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research, Chicago,
------ (with Jennifer A. Parsons). Measuring interviewer effects on self-reports from homeless persons. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May
------ (with Jennifer A. Parsons & Mark E. Barrett). Awareness and knowledge of alcohol beverage warning labels among the homeless in Cook County, Illinois. American Public
Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with James G. Wolf). Trends and characteristics of households with unlisted telephone numbers: Evidence from Kentucky. Midwest Association for Public Opinion
Research, Chicago, November 1992.
Kay, Ward (with Jennifer A. Parsons). Using fax machines for data retrieval on self-administered surveys of elites. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St.
Charles, IL, May 1993.
Lakner, Edward (with Gerrit Knaap & Ananda Mitra). Validation of information reported in a longitudinal mail survey: The use of computer-generated survey forms to reduce
respondent burden. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
Mitra, Ananda. Evaluation of technology-assisted teaching: The FQAR methodology. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Orlando, FL, June 1993.
------. Rediscovering India in popular movies about India. Conference on South Asian Studies, Madison, WI, October 1992.
------. Tagore, Indian television and contemporary culture. Fourth Annual Tagore Festival, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, October 1992.
------. Towards mapping the Indian immigrant identity in the New World. International and Intercultural Communication Conference, Miami, FL, February 1993.
------. Use of focus groups in questionnaire design. American Evaluation Association Conference, Seattle, WA, November 1992.
------. Waksberg sampling. Computer-aided telephone interviewing: Tools and techniques for effective implementation, Evanston, IL, May 1993.
------ (with Edward Lakner & Gerrit Knaap). Validation of information reported in a longitudinal mail survey: The use of computer-generated survey forms to reduce respondent
burden. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
------ (with Vincent Parker). Perceived differences between higher educational needs of employees and employers of technology-based industries in Illinois. American Association
for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
O'Rourke, Diane. Panel discussant, The 1991 National Organizations Study design and field work. Workshop on the National Organizations Study, Minneapolis, MN, May
------ (with Timothy P. Johnson, Jared B. Jobe, Seymour Sudman, & Richard Warnecke). Cognitive aspects of reporting cancer prevention examinations and tests. American
Public Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with Timothy P. Johnson, Seymour Sudman, Richard B. Warnecke, & Jared Jobe). The effect of regularity on the accuracy of reporting of medical tests. American
Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
Parker, Vincent (with Ananda Mitra). Perceived differences between higher educational needs of employees and employers of technology-based industries in Illinois. American
Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
Parsons, Jennifer A. (with Timothy P. Johnson). Interviewer effects on self-reported substance use among homeless persons. Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research,
Chicago, November 1992.
------ (with Timothy P. Johnson). Measuring interviewer effects on self-reports from homeless persons. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May
------ (with Timothy P. Johnson & Mark E. Barrett). Awareness and knowledge of alcohol beverage warning labels among the homeless in Cook County, Illinois. American Public
Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with Ward Kay). Using fax machines for data retrieval on self-administered surveys of elites. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May
Phillips, Joan M. (with Thomas M. Guterhock & Stephen E. Finkel). Gender of interviewer effects in a pre-election poll: Virginia 1991. American Sociological Association,
Pittsburgh, PA, August 1992.
------ (with Richard Schuldt). Gender and response effects in a pre-election poll: Illinois 1992. American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
Sudman, Seymour. Discussant, Session on The effect of regularity of reporting of medical tests, American Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
------ (with Johnny Blair). Discussant, Session on Experimental methods for year 2000 census. Census Bureau Annual Research Conference, March 1993.
------ (with Johnny Blair). Respondent perceptions of reinterviews. American Statistical Association, Boston, MA, August 1992.
------ (with Johnny Blair). Respondent perceptions of reinterviews. Census Bureau Annual Research Conference, March 1993.
------ (with Timothy P. Johnson, Jared B. Jobe, Diane O'Rourke, & Richard Warnecke). Cognitive aspects of reporting cancer prevention examinations and tests. American
Public Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with Diane O'Rourke, Timothy P. Johnson, Richard B. Warnecke, & Jared Jobe). The effect of regularity on the accuracy of reporting of medical tests. American
Association for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
Warnecke, Richard B. (with Timothy P. Johnson, Jared B. Jobe, Diane O'Rourke, & Seymour Sudman). Cognitive aspects of reporting cancer prevention examinations and
tests. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, November 1992.
------ (with Diane O'Rourke, Timothy P. Johnson, Seymour Sudman, & Jared Jobe). The effect of regularity on the accuracy of reporting of medical tests. American Association
for Public Opinion Research, St. Charles, IL, May 1993.
Positions Held in Professional Organizations
Sudman, Seymour. Chair Elect, American Statistical Association Section on Survey Research Methods.
------. Member, American Association for Public Opinion Research Council.
------. Member, American Statistical Association, Founder's Award Committee.
Warnecke, Richard. Chair, 1993 American Association for Public Opinion Research Student Paper Competition.
O'Rourke, Diane. Associate Editor, Journal of Official Statistics.
------. Managing Editor, Survey Research.
Ryan, Marya. Production Editor, Survey Research.
Spaeth, Mary. Editor (through 1992) and Consulting Editor (through June 1993), Survey Research.
Sudman, Seymour. Member, Board of Advisory Editors, Social Science Research.
------. Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Consumer Behavior.
------. Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Marketing Research.
------. Member, Editorial Board, Public Opinion Quarterly.
Warnecke, Richard. Member, Editorial Board. Catalyst.
Consulting and Other Professional Service
Johnson, Timothy P. Consultant, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Mitra, Ananda. Data analysis consultant, Management Learning Laboratories.
------. Data analysis consultant, Research Incorporated.
Sudman, Seymour. Consultant, Brown University.
------. Consultant, Social Science Research Council.
------. Consultant, University of Minnesota.
------. Review Panel, California Tobacco-related Disease Research Program, National Institutes of Health.
Warnecke, Richard B. Chair, Institutional Review Board, UIC.
------. Chair, Policy Subcommittee of the Community Renewal Society.
------. Chair, Study Section, California Tobacco-related Disease Research Program, National Institutes of Health.
------. Consultant, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
------. Consultant, Medical College of Virginia.
------. Consultant, National Cancer Institute.
------. Member of the Board, Community Renewal Society.
Grants and Contracts (new or additional funds)
Johnson, Timothy. Illinois Comprehensive Substance Abuse Study. Illinois Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse.
------. Minority Populations' Understanding of Health Questions. National Center for Health Statistics.
O'Rourke, Diane. Minority Populations' Understanding of Health Questions. National Center for Health Statistics.
Parsons, Jennifer. Meta-Analysis of Social Support Interventions for Addictive Disorders. Prevention Research Center.
Sudman, Seymour. Cancer Information Service Consortium. National Cancer Institute.
Warnecke, Richard. Community Intervention for Cancer Prevention. National Cancer Institute.
------. Network Study of the Chronically Disabled. Brown University.
------. Prescribe for Health in Urban Minority Primary Care Physician Practices. National Cancer Institute.
------. Transition to Parenthood: Gender Role and Distress. Health Resources and Services Administration.